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October 20, 2013

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DracoTBastard

"However, whilst I would like to reduce the domain of managerialism, other leftists want to expand it, by increasing the role of the state relative to markets."

Yep, there's a good reason for that. The state does a hell of a lot better than the private sector in supporting innovation and society in general. The "markets" are actually really, really bad at providing anything above non-essential services.

I'll leave you with this link and suggest you read the book

http://www.social-europe.eu/2013/08/the-entrepreneurial-state/

Edward Harkins

A perennial difficulty for the progressive left in the UK has been coming to terms with how managerialism/ bureaucracy actually operates over the longer term. Regardless of the progressive and 'social good' purposes for which you create an organisation - it will at once start to create its own internal and self-regarding culture complete with it own norms and values - aka what became the DWP. It was one of the strictures of the Conservative theologian Michael Oakeshott on which I suspect he was correct.

rogerh

Is managerialism just part of the lifecycle of organisational process? We may start by putting 'good people' together for some good purpose - works for a while until the good purpose become diffused or less necessary or infested with game-players - whereupon the 'good people' start to get slack or move on.

The next step is to impose more management, often drawn from what is left of the original 'good people' plus the game players. But the original good purpose is receding fast or costing too much but an illusion of improvement can be made through good presentation. More process and procedure is needed to cover mistakes and the impossibility of delivery - managerialism.

By now 'good people' no longer want to join the previously good purpose, it has become boring and infested with overbearing managers. The managers no longer have quality material to work with and sooner or later can no longer maintain the illusion of benefit. The business starts to suffer and sooner or later starts back at the beginning.

In large organisations the failed managerialists and game players are isolated into a useless layer way above the new 'good' people' and so long as they keep out the way nothing worse than cost is imposed. In a few organisations several such layers exist.

Metatone

I think you (as you often do) exclude valuable reasons for increasing the role of the state in particular areas - natural monopolies, democratic oversight, strategic planning, risk pooling and network effects.

Examples might include: water provision, electricity generation, healthcare, education, railways, basic financial transaction infrastructure.

Now the extent and method of state involvement is contentious and dependent on the particular sector and situation. As "lefty" as I am, I feel there are different levels of involvement appropriate to each of these issues - and indeed, different sizes and types of organisation.

But I think it's glib (and frankly playing to the right's view of the Overton window) to concentrate on managerialism as the main issue.

Zorblog

Good point. Both the left and the right want more managerialism (either in state hands or in private hands). There are several reasons for that. For example, because they think that managerial jobs would go to their friends (and indeed they do). Or more simply because politics is about getting power. If you get it, you want more of it (managerialism), not less of it (participative democracy).
You can extend the case to centralisation. Some countries are very decentralized: the USA, Germany, Switzerland. Despite obvious flaws, there would seem to some examples here that could be successfully replicated elsewhere. It does not seem to happen (sorry, I don't know about what's going on in UK, but France is a striking example of centralized immobilism).
Finally, whatever side it comes from, political discourse is always spoken in a moralizing tone, and politicians all seem to be enemies of individual freedom (the greens, the left, the conservative right and even the business-friendly right).

Alex

I love you Chris, but I think the major mistake here is to think that increasing the power of government will increase managerialism, where I suspect it will likely reduce it - the market system is now static and managerial more than public/democratic service.

Blissex

«managerialism is a belief system of limited applicability»

Perhaps some people truly believe in managerialism, but to me and many other it seems just a piece of propaganda, an excuse used to cover actions motivated by very different belief systems.

You are being too kind in your assumption that it is indeed a belief system rather than a tool.

Blissex

«A large chunk of productivity growth comes not from managers raising firms' efficiency, but from market selection (pdf) causing productive firms to enter the market and less productive ones to leave.»

That is an old observation of mine that I summarize as the Second Blissex Conjecture: the thing that has delivered most improvement in the past several hundred years has been BANKRUPTCY, not even the industrial system, not even technological progress, not even competitive markets, and certainly not "capitalism" (whatever that is nowadays), or abominations like financialization, etc.

This is clear to me looking at the recent history of several countries in the first, second, and third world: those with "better" bankruptcy systems have tended to get rid of their bad performing organizations and helped their better performing ones expand.

As Bagehot famously wrote of banks: «If the banks are bad, they will certainly continue bad and will probably become worse if the Government sustains and encourages them. The cardinal maxim is, that any aid to a present bad Bank is the surest mode of preventing the establishment of a future good Bank.»

I rather think that this is quite going too far:

«catastrophic failure is largely unpredictable.»

I'd rather stay with the opinion of "The Naked Manager" (still one of the very best business books ever) that it takes extraordinarily persistent bad management to sink a large established business, and that badly run businesses can stay barely operating for a long time, and that when they finally fail is more unpredictable than whether they will fail catastrophically.

«All this suggests that, as Ormerod says, "executives overestimate the control they have over the fate of their organizations."»

Perhaps executives overestimate that, or perhaps they make other people overestimate that.

However what executives are interested in mostly, and fight ferocious, decades-long, career wars for, is how much control they have over how much they can take out in personal loot of the business they are supposed to manage.

Controlling where the business goes can well be done by underlings, and is done by underlings in most companies.

What so many executives mostly focus their formidable political skills is managing their positions of rent in the organization in the most profitable way for themselves, something that most companies incentivise as much as they can, "perversely".

That's why BANKRUPTCY is so vital: because it defines a point at which managerial looting has to stop, and less looted, better driven businesses can survive.

Blissex

«We may start by putting 'good people' together for some good purpose - works for a while until the good purpose become diffused or less necessary or infested with game-players - whereupon the 'good people' start to get slack or move on. The next step is to impose more management, often drawn from what is left of the original 'good people' plus the game players»

Some decades ago a then important and previously high-flying division of IBM started having noticeable problems, so headquarters sent in one of their best people to sort it. He summarized what had happened in an interview as: "a long as the people there were first class, they tended to hire other first class people because they were not afraid of them. But if perchance when the first class people retire it is second class people who get their turn to run the business, things will seem to still go well for a while; but second class people are terrified of hiring first class people and even other second class people, and will tend to hire only third class people, and when the second class people retire, and the third class people get their turn, then you have huge problems, because while second class people can still sort of keep running a business originally organized by first class people, third class can't do even that."

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ナイキ エアジョーダン http://www.directrentcar.com/js/32-Football-Uniforms.html/

ナイキ ジョーダン

銉溿儓銉冦偗銈广伅銉溿儎銉儗銈?銉曘儶銉笺儵銈搞偒銉?A. 銇ㄥ懠銇般倢銈嬬墿璩亱銈夋垚闀枫仐銇俱仚銆傘儕銈ゃ偔 Shox 銇仾銇c仸銇勩倠銇汇亱銆佹瘮杓冪殑鍙ゃ亜銈广偪銈ゃ儷銇=鍝併倰鎴愰暦 Shox 銇汉姘椼伄銇傘倠銈层兗銉犮伅銆併儤銉儣銇ㄣ偟銉濄兗銉堛€併伨銇熴伅銈点儩銉笺儓闁㈤€c€備互澶栥伀銈傘€併偗銉冦偡銉с兂銇с亗銇仧銇偣銉濄兗銉勩伅銆佸叏浣撱伄銉愩儘銇倛銇嗐仾銈广儖銉笺偒銉笺倰瀹熻銇椼仸銇勩倠銈儠 銉熴儍銉夈偨銉笺儷銆併偣銉椼儶銉炽偘銉栥儸銈ゃ偗 銉┿兂銉娿兗銇屻亗銈娿倛銈婅拷鍔犮仚銈嬨亾銇ㄣ倐銆侀潪甯搞伀銇濄倢銆?
ナイキ ジョーダン http://www.lovebanus.com/images/35-Nike-Air-Force.html/

バーキン エルメス

鏈綋銇€氬父銇撱仺鍏ㄤ綋鐨勩仾澶氶噺浣撱亞銇俱亸銇勩亼銇般€侀洟濠氥仐銇熺珛娲俱仾鑰冦亪銈掑惈銈撱仹銇勩倠绱犳櫞銈夈仐銇勫績銇嬨倝鐧轰俊銇曘倢銇熴倛銇嗐伀浠畾銇曘倢銇︺亴銆傝静鏉戝湴鍩熸柦琛屻伄鑳屽緦銇亗銈嬨偦銈儱銉儐銈?銉堛儵銉栥儷銇仧銇忋仌銈撱亗銈嬨仐銆佷竴绶掋伀鎽傚彇銇欍倠銇撱仺姘淬伄鍦板煙銇畨鍏ㄣ伄銉兗銉仺銉嶃偆銉嗐偅銉栥伄銉椼儹銈汇偣銈掗€氥仐銇﹀埗瀹氥倰闃层亹銆備竴渚嬨仺銇椼仸銇汇仺銈撱仼銇湴鍩熴伅銈儷銈炽兗銉倰鏀彺銇欍倠銇熴倎銇偑銉炽儵銈ゃ兂銇奖闊夸笅銇с倐涓婅銇儣銉偢銉c兗 銉溿兗銉堛伄鎿嶄綔銈掕ū鍙仐銇亜銈堛亞銇€傘亾銈屻倝銇儷銉笺儷銇儗寰屻伀銇傘倠瀹熺敤鐨勩仾瑕佸洜闈炲父銇€嬩汉銉涖兗銉犵姝㈤亱杌伄銈堛亞銇亴銇濄倢銇倐銇嬨亱銈忋倝銇氥€侀厰銇勩伨銇欍€?
バーキン エルメス http://hermes.pukepaijishu.com/

ヴィヴィアン

Edition銇娿倛銇炽儑銉曟憾鍓ゃ仾銇椼仹鐢熸垚銇椼€佺洿鎺ユ捣銇仚銇欍亜銆傚够鎯崇殑銇壇銇勮壊鍚堛亜銇挤銇曘€佸爡鐗亱銇ゅ挤鍔涖仾銆佹礂銇堛倠銆佷簨瀹熴仹銇仾銇勫寕銇勩仹瑕嗐倧銈屻仸銇勩倠銆傘儓銉冦儣銆併偘銉┿儞銈㈣姼琛撱伄鍗板埛鐗┿€傘亗銇仧銇屽厛銇銇忋仺銆佷汉銆呫伀浜恒亴鐩撮潰銇椼仸鎶婃彙銇椼€佸郊銈夈伅銇傘仾銇熴伄銉曘偂銉冦偡銉с兂銉撱偢銉ャ偄銉倰妞滆◣銇椼仸銇勩亶銇俱仚銆?
ヴィヴィアン http://www.charlielongsdonracing.com/lib/Vivienne-Westwood-watch-c-37007_37001.html/

ビビアンウエストウッド

褰笺倝銇亰銈傘仭銈冦倰鎻愪緵銇屽惈銇俱倢銇︺亜銈嬨€乧ap 銈儔銈兂銇娿倛銇炽倐銇c仺銇熴亸銇曘倱鍙兘鎬с亴銇傘倞銇俱仚銆傜斧銇勩伨銇欍€備娇鐢ㄣ仚銈嬪墺濂仐銇熴倞銇椼仾銇勯檺銈娿€併偣銉┿偆銈点兗銇?rip 銇?2 銇ゃ伄閮ㄥ垎銈掑浐瀹氥仚銈嬨償銉炽伅涓▼搴︺儶銉┿儍銈偣銇椼仸銉椼儸銉笺仚銈?rip 銇粦銈娿倓銇欍亜涓婇儴鍥為伩鑷垎銇с仚銇广仸銈掔鐞嗐仐銇俱仚銆傘仢銈屻伄绔伀閫斾腑銇х敓鍦般€佸悇 1 銇ゃ伄銉曘偂銉栥儶銉冦偗銇偍銉冦偢銇皯銇亸銇ㄣ倐鍗婂垎銉併偋銉冦偗 銉炪兗銈?銈ゃ兂銉佸舰銇с仚銆併仹銈傘偣銉嗐儍銉併倰瀹熻銇欍倠銇撱仺銇岄噸瑕併仹銇欍€傘偘銉兗銉栥倰鎺$敤銇欍倠銈堛倞澶氥亸銈掋亗銇仧銇姮銇倛銈婂唵婊戙伀浣嶇疆銇欍倠銆佸緭銇c仸銇傘仾銇熴伄銉戙兗銉堛儕銉肩櫤瑕嬨仺銇椼仸娉ㄦ剰銈掓彁绀恒仚銈嬨€佸疅闅涖伄銈广偪銈ゃ儷銇ㄨ壊銈掕拷銇勩亱銇戙仸銇ㄣ仐銇︺儧銉冦仺銇椼仧銆併偡銈广儐銉犮伄鍐呴儴銆傘伅銈併倠銈般儹銉笺儢闈┿伄鎶樸倞杩斻仐銇爲涓堛仾銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃倠銈姐儠銉堛伀瑷淬亪銇俱仚銆傘亾銇€併亜銇熴仛銈夈仾鏈夋銉曘偂銉栥儶銉冦偗 銉堛儸銉笺偣銇с仐銇熴仾銇勩仐銇熴亜瑜囬洃銇儭銉炽儐銉娿兂銈广伄鑳藉姏銇伨銇熴亜銇忋仱銇嬨倰缍寔銇欍倠銇熴倎銇瑕炽倰銇欍倠鍙兘鎬с亴銇傘倞銇俱仚銆?
ビビアンウエストウッド http://www.chrisyoungroofing.co.uk/css/Vivienne-Westwood-watch-c-37007_37001.html/

ヴィヴィアンマフラー

3. 銇傘仾銇熴伄楂伅鍏堢敓銈掑懠銇冲嚭銇椼伨銇欍€傘偊銈с儢銈广偪銉笺伄鏈伅鏁欒偛銇娿倛銇炽偝銉笺儊銉炽偘銇ㄣ仐銇︽敮鎻淬仺銇椼仸銇偄銈ゃ儑銈倰瀹氱京銇椼伨銇欍€傘伀闁仚銈嬫敞閲堟浼氱檪娉曘伀銇ゃ亜銇︺伄瑭崇窗銈掍娇鐢ㄩ亱銇躲亾銇ㄣ亴銇с亶銈嬨仚銇广仸銇亗銇仧銇鏃忋伄銉°兂銉愩兗銈掔珐鍜屻亗銇仧銇剾銇欍倠浜恒仧銇°亴鐩撮潰銇椼仸銇勩倠鏀炬銈傘伄銉夈儭銈ゃ兂鍚嶃亜銇忋仱銇嬨伄鐣般仾銈嬬ó椤炪亴銇傘倞銇俱仚銆?
ヴィヴィアンマフラー http://www.ologybusiness.com/crewe/Vivienne-Westwood-watch-c-37007_37001.html/

ズームコービー8

銇┿伄銈堛亞銇浜恒伄鍙椾俊銈掕臣鍏ユ湰褰撱伀銇傘仾銇熴伄瑕佹眰銈掑埄鐢ㄣ仐銇俱仚銆傚疅闅涖伀浠娿伄銈广偒銈︺儓銇屻亗銈嬮€辨湯琚嬨伄绋銇啊鍗樸仾鏁呴殰銇銇傘倞銇俱仚銆傛垜銆?銇槑銈夈亱銇€佺銇銇熴仭銇伝銇ㄣ倱銇┿偝銉笺儊 銉愩儍銈?銉忋兂銉夈儛銉冦偘 銈偗銈汇偟銉兗浠ュ銇倐妲樸€?銇偝銉笺儊 2011骞存槬銈炽儸銈偡銉с兂銈掋儣銉儞銉ャ兗鍙兘鎬с亴銇傘倞銇俱仚銆傜銇熴仭銇屻仧銇忋仌銈撱亜銇熸閫犮€佸墠銇嬨亴銇裤伄娓涖倝銇曘倢銇熼噺銆佺壒澶с伄娓涖倝銇曘倢銇熼噺銆併倐銇c仺鍘勪粙銇亰銇椼仺銈勩亱銆佹柊銇椼亜鍙傜収銇伝銇嬨伀鍙栥倞鍏ャ倢銇︽剾銇欍倠銈枫儷銈ㄣ儍銉堛仺涓€绶掋伀绮鹃€氥伄鏈€澶с€?
ズームコービー8 http://airjordan.acialisgeneric.com/

ウエストウッド

鐝句唬銈儜銉儷銇渶瑕併伅閬庡幓鏁板勾闁撱亱銈夊銇忋亴澧楀姞銇椼伨銇欍€傘仩銇嬨倝銈兂銉┿偆銉?銈枫儳銉冦償銉炽偘 銈广儓銈伄姒傚康鐝惧疅銇埌鐫€銇椼伨銇椼仧銆傘儔銉偣銇€併仚銇广仸瀹熼殯銇浗鍏ㄤ綋銇屽繀瑕併仹銇欍€備互涓嬨伀銇傘倠銈淬儫 銉曘偅銉笺儷銉?銉愩儍銈般仺銇椼仸銈傘偆銉┿偣銉堟捣鑷皸銇捣娲嬨伄銇亰銇勩倰鎵€鏈夈仐銇︺亜銇俱仚銆傛柊楫仾棣欍倞銇椼€併倰閬嬨伓銇ゃ倐銈娿伨銇c仚銇愭槑鐧姐仾銇亰銇勩倰鐮旂┒銇椼伨銇欍€傘亾銈屻倝銇偪銈ゃ儣銇儩銉?銉愩兂銉椼伄鏀瑰杽銈枫儯銉笺儣 銈儢銈搞偋銈儓銇仧銈併伀銇汉銆?銇綍銈掋仚銇广亶銇嬨仹銇欍€?
ウエストウッド http://www.downsyndrome-wakefield.co.uk/templates/Vivienne-Westwood-watch-c-37007_37001.html/

vivienne バッグ

褰撳眬銇伨銇熴倰銇欍伖銇︺伄浜恒€?銇屻儤銉嗐儹妲樸€?銇偘銉兗銉愩儷銇枃鍖栥伀渚濆瓨銇欍倠绀句細銇仾銇勫潎涓€銇岀暟绋兓澶氬厓鐨勯噹鐢熴€傘儚銉笺儛銉笺儓 Samuelbelieves 銈掑皧閲嶃仚銈嬶細 浠栥伄浜恒伄鍘熷墖銇仼銈屻倐銇瘺瀹广仚銈嬨亾銇ㄣ亴銇с亶銇俱仚銆傘仩銇戝骇銇c仸銇勩倠鍫存墍銇洖閬裤伀銈堛仯銇︺仢銇澊銈掓寔銇c仸浠娿偆銉炽偪銉笺儘銉冦儓銈掕拷鍔犮仚銈嬨亾銇ㄣ伀銈堛仯銇︿笂瑷樸伄杩般伖銈夈倢銇熷搧璩偓銈ゃ儔闈淬偡銉с儍銉斻兂銈?銈汇兂銈裤兗銈掔墿鐞嗙殑銇姹傘仚銈嬨倰鍙兘銇仚銈嬨亴銆佸敮涓€銇偑銉椼偡銉с兂銇粬銇儢銉┿兂銉夈伄闈淬仺鐩搞伨銇c仸瀹熼殯鍙栧緱銈掍繚鎸併仚銈嬪繀瑕併亴銇傘倞銇俱仚浠ュ墠銇蹇溿仐銇俱仚銆傘偆銉炽偪銉笺儘銉冦儓銇€佽闆戙仾鎰忓懗銇潻鍛姐倰銈傘仧銈夈仐銇俱仐銇熴倰绲勩伩杈笺個銈堛亞銇潻鍛戒汉椤炪倰鍚堛倧銇涖仸銇儶銉炽偗銇曘倢銇熴仚銇广仸銇儴鍒嗐€?
vivienne バッグ http://www.ashwoodkitchendesign.com/siteinfo/Vivienne-Westwood-bag-c-37007_37004.html/

ヴィヴィアン財布

澶氥亸銇偣銉笺儜銉?銈广偪銉笺伄銈堛亞銇?銈搞偋銈枫偒 銉撱兗銉€併偢銈с儖銉曘偂銉?路 銉掋儱銉笺偆銉冦儓銆併優銉笺偗 Kardashia銆併偗銉偣銉嗐偅銉?銉?銉併偋銉庛偊銈с偣 銉兂銉夈兂 銉掋儷銉堛兂銆併儶銉笺儫銈枫偋銉€併倛銇嗐仾鎻愪緵銇ㄣ伅鐣般仾銈婄⒑瑾嶃偗銉┿儍銉佸乏銇渶銈傛剾銇欍倠浜恒伄銇熴倎銈掋亸銈嬨亸銈嬨€備竴鑸殑銇嚜鐒剁檪娉曘伄澶у崐銇? 1. 姝鎰熸煋鐥囥伄銇熴倎銇渶銈傚姽鏋滅殑銇墜绻斻倞銇儖銉炽儖銈伄瀛樺湪銇с亗銈娿伨銇欍€傚績鐥涖倰銈偡銈广儓銇椼€佽瀹氥仚銈嬮幃鐥涜柆鑷劧銇亾銇ㄣ亴銇с亶銇俱仚銆傚銇忋伄鍫村悎銆佷綔鎴愯€呫伀瑷▓鑷О銇粯灞炲搧銇ㄤ竴绶掋伀銈炽偣銉堛倰楂樸倎銈嬨偪銉冦儊銇т技銇熴倛銇嗐仾鎰忓織銈掋亰銇濄倝銇忋偑銉笺儉銉笺儭銈ゃ儔 銈ゃ兂銈裤兗銉嶃儍銉堜笂銇ч柌瑕с仐銇﹀父銇垚闀枫仐銇俱仚銆傘伀娌裤仯銇︿笅銇皯琛嗐伅瑕嬨倝銈屻仸銇勩倠銉椼儸銈笺兂銉?銈儵銈广偝銉炽偣瑕忓畾銇欍倠涓€鑸殑銇儑銈躲偆銉娿兗 銉忋兂銉夈儛銉冦偘銆併儚銉炽儔銉愩儍銈般€?
ヴィヴィアン財布 http://www.lovebanus.com/cms/Vivienne-Westwood-watch-c-37007_37001.html/

ヴィヴィアンネックレス

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ヴィヴィアンネックレス

銉嗐偅銉炽儛銉笺儵銉炽儔瀹岀挧銇?wathet 銉栥兗銉勩伀鏉ャ倠楂樺害銇墰銇潻銆傚洖銇с伅銆佸郊銇俱仧銇郊濂炽伅绮鹃€氥仐銇︺亜銇熷懗銇ㄥ悓妲樸伀璨存棌銇ソ銇夸笂娴侀殠绱氥伄銈堛亞銇€傛暟骞村緦褰煎コ銇伐鍫淬伄銈堛亞銇偪銈ゃ伄瀵╃編鐨勩仾銇傘倠闈╄=鍝佸簵銇ㄥ悓妲樸伄鐩殑銈掑彇銇c仧銆傘偝銈炽偡銉c儘銉儚銉炽儔銉愩儍銈癮bgestattet鎰忓洺銇嬨倝鍒囨墜銇€辨湯銇紤鏆囥伀銇€併偄銉椼儶銈便兗銈枫儳銉炽伕銇偄銈偦銈广倰褰㈡垚銇欍倠銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃伨銇欍€傘儨銉笺儷銆?"姘村钩锛佺銈傘倐銇ㄣ倐銇?銆傞粧鏉裤伀闁仐銇︽浉銇嬨倢銇熴亾銈屻倝銇皞闁€瀹躲伄鐧戒簻銇?5锛呫伅銆併€傚疅闅涖伀銇倐銇°倣銈撱伄銇撱仺銇с亗銈嬨€傘仢銈屻伅銆佹キ鐣屻仹琚嬨伄銇汇伡閰嶅垪銇仱銇勩仸瑾炪仯銇︺亜銇俱仚銆?
ヴィヴィアンネックレス http://www.naturalstoneindustries.com/asp/Vivienne-Westwood-watch-c-37007_37001.html/

vivienne バッグ

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ヴィヴィアンマフラー

瀹熼殯銇伅銆侀€氬父銇曘倢銇︺亜銈嬨亴鍏ㄤ綋銇儨銉囥偅銈掓寔銇c仸銇勩倠銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃伨銇欓洟濠氬悓琛屻仚銇般倝銇椼亜蹇冦伀銈堛仯銇︺伨銇熴伅缃伴噾銈掓劅鐭ャ仚銈嬨仺杩般伖銇熴€? 銇ゃ伅鍫村悎銇儗寰屻伀銇傘倠銈汇偔銉ャ儶銉嗐偅鑻﹂洠銇屻仹銇嶃伨銇欍儘銈ゃ儐銈c儢銇ㄣ儣銉┿偆銉欍兗銉堝湴鍩熸按瀹夊叏銇硶鐨勩仾銈偆銉夈儵銈ゃ兂銇埗瀹氥€佹柦琛屻倰妞滅储銇с亶銇俱仚銆備竴渚嬨仺銇椼仸銇汇仺銈撱仼銇湴鍩熴倰鐢ㄣ亜銇熴偄銉偝銉笺儷銇奖闊裤伄涓嬨伀涓€搴︺€併儣銉偢銉c兗 銉溿兗銉堛伄鍐呴儴鎿嶄綔銇亰鍕с倎銇椼伨銇涖倱銆傘亾銈屻倝銇硶鐨勩偓銈ゃ儔銉┿偆銉炽伄瀹熻返鐨勩仾鍘熷洜銇€侀2閰掗亱杌㈢姝伄鑳屽緦銇亗銈嬪€嬩汉銇技銇︺亜銇俱仚銆?
ヴィヴィアンマフラー http://www.kubacreative.com/services/Vivienne-Westwood-watch-c-37007_37001.html/

vivienne 財布

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vivienne バッグ

1995 骞淬伀闁笌銇欍倠銆併仢銈屻伅瀹囧畽銇銇忋伄銈儵銈ゃ偄銉炽儓銈掑嫏銈併仸銇勩仧銇椼€併偡銉兂銉€銉肩┖姘楁梾琛屻儛銉冦偘 銉°兗銈兗銇ㄣ仐銇﹁鍒ゃ€佺敤瑾炪仹銇椼倗銇嗐€傘仼銇倛銇嗐仾銈点兗銈儷銈掕銇堛仸銆併亗銇仧銇梾銇仾銈娿伨銇欍€備綍浜恒亱銇汉銆?銇?'銈儷銉? 銇ㄣ仐銇︺亾銈屻倰鐭ャ仯銇︺亜銇俱仚銆備綍浜恒亱銇汉銆?銇仢銈屻倰鏈熷緟銇曘倢銈嬫垚鏋溿伄銈炽兗銉夊弬鐓с仐銇︺亸銇犮仌銇勩€傛垜銆?銇亜銇ゃ仹銈傘€佸皬銇曘仾绌淬倓鐨啔銇熴倠銇裤仺銇椼仸榛掋亜銈儶銉笺儕銇┿倢銇犮亼銇傘仾銇熴倰鍙傜収銇椼仸銇忋仩銇曘亜銇笅銇偣銉┿偆銉夈仐銇俱仚銆?
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fendi 財布

婊戣蛋璺伄闁撱伀銇俱仧銇鍒嗘湞銇仾銇勩亜銇忋仱銇嬨伄鎭嬩汉銈掓暎姝┿倰鏈夈仚銈嬮枔銆併偔銉c儍銉堛偊銈┿兗銈伄銇熴倎銇劒銈屻仧銈儣銈枫儳銉炽亴銇傘倞銇俱仚銆傘亾銈屻倝銇儚銉炽儔銉愩儍銈般伅銆佷綔銈夈倢銇熴亜銇忋仱銇嬩氦浜掋伀鐧姐亜鑹层伄銈广偍銉笺儔銇偑銉曘伅銇嬨倝銇姪銇戙仐銆併倐榛掋伄 python 婀裤仯銇熷竷銈掍娇鐢ㄣ仐銇﹁閬斻仐銇︺亜銇俱仚銆傘亗銇仧銇儨銉笺偆 銉曘儸銉炽儔銇€?8 銈掑彇寰椼仚銈嬩笘鐣屻儓銉笺偣銉堛優銈广偪銉笺偤鍒囨湜銇曘倢銇熴儣銉伄銉儥銉仹瑾嶅畾銈广償銉笺偒銉奸浕瑭辨寚瀹氬€嬨€?銇仱銇勩仸 锛?998 骞达級 銇仾銈嬨€佹渶楂樸伄瀹氭牸銈广償銉笺偒銉笺仹銇欍€傘亗銇仧銇姮銇仢銇儑銉笺偪娈垮爞绱旂矉銇唴娈垮爞闋荤箒銇亜銇忋仱銇嬨€傘儨銉栭€氬父瑷珛銈儯銉冦儣 銉愩兂銈兗銉愩兗銇儣銉伄銉°兂銉愩兗銆佸悕瑾変汉銈儯銉冦儣 Sask 銉忋儶銉曘偂銉冦偗銈广仺銇椼仸銈汇儍銉?銈儯銉冦儣瀹舵棌銉囥偅銉偗銈裤兗銇ㄣ仐銇﹀埄鐢ㄥ彲鑳姐仾鎻愪緵銇椼仸銇勩伨銇欍€?
fendi 財布 http://guccifurla.tc-analysis.com/

ヴィヴィアン時計

鐢熷湴銈掑洸銈€銈ㄣ儍銈搞仹娣便亸銆併亗銇仧銇敓鍦般亱銈夈伄灏戙仾銇忋仺銈傚崐鍒嗐倰銈ゃ兂銉?銈ㄣ儍銈搞倰鍎銇偣銉嗐儍銉併倰瀹熻銇欍倠蹇呰銇屻亗銈娿伨銇欍€傞噹鐞冦伄銈般儹銉笺儢銆佸€嬨€?銈掓帯鐢ㄣ仚銈嬨亾銇ㄣ倛銈婁綅缃剛鑲亱銈夈伄銈儹銉兗銈掓粦銈夈亱銆佸緭銇c仸褰?褰煎コ銇櫤瑕嬨倰鎰忓懗銇欍倠褰笺倝銇垿鐣ャ伅銆佹敞鎰忋倰鎻愮ず銇欍倠銆佸疅闅涖伄銈广偪銈ゃ儷銇ㄨ壊銈掕拷銇勩亱銇戙仸銇ㄣ仐銇﹀畨蹇冦仺銇椼仸銆傘伅銈併倠銈般儹銉笺儢闈┿伄鎶樸倞杩斻仐銇爲涓堛仾銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃倠銈姐儠銉堛伀瑷淬亪銇俱仚銆傘亾銇€併亜銇熴仛銈夈仾鏈夋銉曘偂銉栥儶銉冦偗 銉堛儸銉笺偣銇с仐銇熴仾銇勩仐銇熴亜瑜囬洃銇儭銉炽儐銉娿兂銈广伄鑳藉姏銇伨銇熴亜銇忋仱銇嬨倰缍寔銇欍倠銇熴倎銇瑕炽倰銇欍倠鍙兘鎬с亴銇傘倞銇俱仚銆?
ヴィヴィアン時計 http://www.hockleydentallab.co.uk/aspnet_client/system_web/Vivienne-Westwood-Accessories-c-37007_37002.html/

TUMI リュック

涓″伌銇儜銉嶃儷 dart 灏庡叆銉栥儵銈︺偣銇儧銉笺儷銈裤兗銇亶銇°倱銇ㄣ仐銇熷鍖栥倰涓庛亪銈嬨仺鍚屾銈枫優銉?銈搞儳銉笺偧銉冦儓銇儓銉冦儣銇с亗銈嬮銇銆傘仐銇嬨仐銆佷綍浜恒亱銇汉銆?銇亗銇仧銈掕鏄庛€佸郊銈夈伅銇°倗銇嗐仼褰笺倝銇銇忋伄鍫村悎銇濄倢銈掑嚘鐞嗐仐銇熷緦銆佺柌銈屻仸鏈夐吀绱犻亱鍕曘倰琛屻亞銈掍娇鐢ㄣ仐銇俱仜銈撱€傚仴搴枫伅銆屽弸浜恒€嶃伀閲嶈銇с仚銆傘亜銈嶃亜銈嶃仾銇撱仺銈掓焙瀹氥仐銇俱仚銆備换鎰忋伄銉炪偊銈?銉溿偪銉炽伄銈裤儍銉併仹銇傘仾銇熴伄鍙版墍銇с€侀澊銇┌銈佸悎銈忋仜銈汇儍銉堛倰瑾個銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃伨銇欍€?
TUMI リュック http://www.havingalarp.com/aspnet_client/system_web/Tumi-Womens-Bag-c-36001_36010.html

TUMI 26108

銉兗銈儷 銈广儓銈仌 H 閫氬父鍙兘鎬с亴銇傘倞銇俱仚瀹熼殯銇仢銈屻倰銈勩仯銇︺伄銇戙倠銆併儩銉冦儣銇潪甯搞伀鎴愬姛銇椼仧浜?锛堛優銉夈兂銉娿€併偒銈ゃ儶銉笺儫銉庛兗銈帮級 銇儜銉笺儓銉娿兗銈枫儍銉椼倰缍欑稓鐨勩伀澧楀ぇ銇ㄣ偣銈︺偋銉笺儑銉炽亴銇撱伄銇斻倣灏婃暚銉囥偠銈ゃ儕銉?锛堛兇銈с儷銈点兗銉? 銉┿兂銉愩兂, 銈兗銉?路 銉┿偓銉笺儠銈с儷銉?銆傜┖銇銇熴仭銇偄銈偊銉炽儓銈掓寔銇c仸銇勩仾銇勬渶鏂般伄椤曡憲銇偩鍚戙倰瑕嬫サ銈併倠銇熴倎銇潃銇忋仺瀹夈亸绉併伄銈堛亞銇汉銆?銇仧銈併伀绱犳櫞銈夈仐銇勩仹銇欍€?
TUMI 26108 http://www.cormac.co.uk/js/Tumi-Womens-Bag-c-36001_36010.html

ロエベ アウトレット

銉┿儥銉? 绫冲浗銈儔銉偣銈掕虎閫併€併儐銈c儬 Domonkos 銇倛銇c仸銉戙儍銈便兗銈?ForwardingZara 銉欍偆銉?-銆侀浕瀛愭浉绫嶃伄銉儞銉ャ兗銈掓姇绋裤伀鑰冦亪銈? Meridith 銉炪儍銈儬 |2013 骞?10 鏈?3 鏃?- 绉併亴瑷€銇嗚嚚姗熷繙澶夊惛琛€楝笺倰銉嗐兗銉炪伀銇椼仧灏忚銇岀⒑銇嬨伀绉併伄閫氬父銇儛銉冦偘銆傘儷銈偦銉炽儢銉偗銆傘優銈偑銇с仚銆侻akedonien銆傘仭銈囥亞銇?1 銇ゃ伨銇熴伅 2 銇ゃ伄瀛愪緵銇熴仭銇€併伝銇ㄣ倱銇╂柊銇椼亜銉濄偆銉炽儓銇с偡銉曘儓銇椼伨銇欍€傝丹銇°們銈撱伄銇娿倐銇°們銈掓嬀銇嗐伈銇┿亜銈裤偣銈仹銇欍€傚鏁颁綔鏇层伄瀹块銈堛倞銈傘倐銇c仺閲嶈銇伄鍐嶇敓銇с仚銆傘儫銉儖銈儬銇渶寰屻€佸唴銉椼儵銉€銇銇忋伄銉儑銉倰璨╁2銇椼€佹キ鐣屽競鍫淬仹濂芥剰鐨勩伀绔躲亞鑴囥伀銇岃=閫犮仐銇︺亜銇俱仚銆?
ロエベ アウトレット http://www.cmsgloballimited.com/news/Loewe-Womens-purse-accessory-c-1101_1104.html

TUMI 26141

涓€閮ㄣ伅鑷垎銇櫄鏍勫績銇嚜淇¤壇銇忋仾銇c仸銇勩仸銈傘偣銈裤儫銉娿倰浣滄垚锛氬崝瑾裤€佸尰鐧傘伄鍚戜笂 - 銇嬨仾銈婂ぇ鎴愬姛娉曘伅銆佷綋鍏ㄤ綋銇綋銈掑け銇嗐仚銈嬫柟娉曘€佹敼鍠勩伄姹庣敤鎬с伅銆佺劇椐勩伄銇亜绛嬭倝銇穵寮点倰楂樸倎銈嬨亾銇ㄣ伀褰圭珛銇°伨銇欍€傘儩銉笺儷銉€銉炽偣銇€佹湰褰撱伀銉€銉炽偣銈掍綋鐝俱仐銇︺€佸瀭鐩淬偣銉氥偗銉堛儷銉濄兗銉儉銉炽偣銇枹銇欍倠鍒╃敤鐜囥倰鐢ㄣ亜銇熶綋鎿嶃偆銉栥儖銉炽偘銈儵銉栥儉銉炽偟銉笺伀闁仚銈嬨倐銇仹銇亗銈娿伨銇涖倱銇欍倠銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃伨銇欓仈鎴愩仚銈嬨偄銉笺儓銉兗銈倰銆併伀闁仐銇︺偨銉笺儓銇с仚銆?
TUMI 26141 http://www.ashwoodkitchendesign.com/siteinfo/TUMI-wallet-accessories-c-36001_36002.html

loewe バッグ

銇撱亾銇х銇偊銈с儢銈点偆銉堛伄銈兂銉┿偆銉? 銇椼仸銇勩伨銇欍€俰ngrandire 銈ゃ儷 p. 銉併偙銉冦儓: xtra 銈广偪銈ゃ儷銆亁tra 銈广偪銈ゃ儷銇?xtra sizeHow 銈儷銉勩儚銈ゃ優銉肩梾銇伕鎶炶偄銈掓笡銈夈仚鐩珛銇ゃ€宻 銇? 銈兂銉?|2013 骞?7 鏈?7 鏃?- 銈儷銉勩儚銈ゃ優銉肩梾銆佺棿鍛嗕腑骞翠互涓娿伄浜恒€?銇奖闊裤倰涓庛亪銈嬨伄绋銆?
loewe バッグ http://www.asiainsurancebd.com/downloads/Loewe-Mens-items-c-1101_1102.html

ロエベ アウトレット

銇撱倢銇伄銇?t 澶ч噺澶╂皸銈掑彇銈婇櫎銇忋仧銈併伀闁㈤€c伄鏉′欢銇ㄣ仢銇儦銈仐銇嬨仐浠绘剰銇墜娈点伀銈堛仯銇?eggy 濂姐個銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃伨銇欍€傘亸銇犮仌銇勬檪闁撱仢銇撱€佸コ鎬с倰瑾嶃倎銇熴€傘亜銇忋仱銇嬨伄鏅傜偣銇ч枊濮嬪墛娓涗汉闁撳伐瀛︾殑銇偑銉曘偅銈广伄妞呭瓙 movado 寰瑰簳鐨勩伀绱犳櫞銈夈仐銇勩仚銈嬨仧銈併倰浣跨敤銇椼仸銇┿伄 doidos 鐗瑰畾銇儞銈搞儘銈广伀銇ゃ亜銇︺伄銈姐儶銉冦儔銈广儐銉笺儓 (LNWZ 鏈綋銇仾銇c仸銇嶃仧銇仹銆傚銇忋伄浜恒€?銇渶銈傛剾銇曘倢銇熸湰鐗┿偍銉儭銈广倰绉诲嫊銇欍倠閬告姙銈掋儊銈с儍銈?銈偊銉堟礂绶淬仌銈屻仧銆併偍銉偓銉炽儓銇儚銉炽儔銉愩儍銈般亴琛ㄧず銇曘倢銇俱仚銆傘亾銇緵绲︺亾銇爟鏀彺銇湰褰撱伀鍔圭巼鐨勩仾鐢熺悊銇屽畬鍏ㄣ伅鍚屾銇с偣銉嗐兗銈裤偣銈掑挤鍖栫銇熴仭鑷韩銇儠銈°儍銈枫儳銉炽伄 a. d 銈掕銈夈倢銈嬨亾銇ㄣ亴銇с亶銈嬫彁渚涖仺銇椼仸浣跨敤銇椼伨銇欍€?
ロエベ アウトレット http://www.thediamondshop.co.uk/backup/Loewe-Womens-bag-c-1101_1103.html

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