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Copyright © 1997 Electrical Apparatus Service Association, Inc. 398JS200M Copyright © 1999 JOLIET Equipment Corporation TABLE OF CONTENTS MOTOR DATA - ELECTRICAL Terminal Markings and Connections Part Winding Start Three-Phase Motors - Single Speed Three-Phase Motors - Two Speed, Single Winding DC Motors and Generators Field Polarities of DC Machines Maximum Locked-Rotor Currents - Three-Phase Squirrel Cage Motors NEMA Code Letters For AC Motors General Speed-Torque Characteristics Effect of Voltage Unbalance on Motor Performance Starting Characteristics of Squirrel Cage Induction Motors Allowable Starts and Starting Intervals CONTRACTORS NEMA Size Starters for Three-Phase Motors Starter Enclosures NEMA Size Starters for Single-Phase Motors Derating Factors for Conductors in a Conduit Temperature Classifications of Insulation Systems Resistance Temperature Detectors Determining the Polarizatioin Index of Machine Windings USEFUL FORMULAS and CONVERSIONS Formulas for Electrical Motors Formulas for Electrical Circuits Temperature Correction of Winding Resistance Motor Application Formulas Glossary INDEX TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS PART WINDING START NEMA NOMENCLATURE—6 LEADS WYE OR DELTA CONNECTED MOTOR LEADS T1 T2 T3 T7 T8 T9 1 2 3 7 8 9 NEMA NOMENCLATURE—9 LEADS WYE CONNECTED (LOW VOLTAGE ONLY) MOTOR LEADS T1 T2 T3 T7 T8 T9 Together 1 2 3 7 8 9 4&5&6 NEMA AND IEC NOMENCLATURE—12 LEADS SINGLE VOLTAGE OR LOW VOLTAGE OF DUAL-VOLTAGE MOTORS NEMA IEC T1 T2 T3 T7 T8 T9 1,6 2,4 3,5 7,12 8,10 9,11 U1,W2 V1,U2 W1,V2 U5,W6 V5,U6 W5,V6 TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS THREE-PHASE MOTORS-SINGLE SPEED NEMA NOMENCLATURE—6 LEADS SINGLE VOLTAGE EXTERNAL WYE CONNECTION L1 L2 L3 JOIN 1 2 3 4&5&6 SINGLE VOLTAGE EXTERNAL DELTA CONNECTION L1 L2 L3 1,6 2,4 3,5 SINGLE AND DUAL VOLTAGE WYE-DELTA CONNECTIONS SINGLE VOLTAGE OPERATING MODE CONNECTION L1 L2 L3 JOIN START WYE 1 2 3 4&5&6 RUN DELTA 1,6 2,4 3,5 --- DUAL VOLTAGE* VOLTAGE CONNECTION L1 L2 L3 JOIN HIGH WYE 1 2 3 4&5&6 LOW DELTA 1,6 2,4 3,5 --- *Voltage Ratio: 1.732 to 1. TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS THREE-PHASE MOTORS-SINGLE SPEED NEMA NOMENCLATURE—9 LEADS DUAL VOLTAGE WYE-CONNECTED VOLTAGE L1 L2 L3 JOIN HIGH 1 2 3 4&7, 5&8, 6&9 LOW 1,7 2,8 3,9 4&5&6 DUAL VOLTAGE DELTA-CONNECTED VOLTAGE L1 L2 L3 JOIN HIGH 1 2 3 4&7, 5&8, 6&9 LOW 1,6,7 2,4,8 3,5,9 --- TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS THREE-PHASE MOTORS-SINGLE SPEED NEMA NOMENCLATURE--12 LEADS DUAL VOLTAGE EXTERNAL WYE CONNECTION VOLTAGE L1 L2 L3 JOIN HIGH 1 2 3 4&7, 5&8, 6&9, 10&11&12 LOW 1,7 2,8 3,9 4&5&6, 10&11&12 DUAL VOLTAGE WYE-CONNECTED START DELTA-CONNECTED RUN VOLTAGE CONN. L1 L2 L3 JOIN HIGH WYE 1 2 3 4&7, 5&8, 6&9, 10&11&12 DELTA 1,12 2,10 3,11 4&7, 5&8, 6&9 WYE 1,7 2,8 3,9 4&5&6,10&11&12 DELTA 1,6,7,12 2,4,8,10 3,5,9,11 --- LOW TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS THREE-PHASE MOTORS-SINGLE SPEED IEC NOMENCLATURE—6 AND 12 LEADS SINGLE AND DUAL VOLTAGE WYE-DELTA CONNECTIONS SINGLE VOLTAGE OPER. MODE CONN. L1 L2 L3 JOIN START WYE U1 V1 W1 U2&V2&W2 RUN DELTA U1, W2 V1, U2 W1, V2 --- DUAL VOLTAGE* VOLT CONN. L1 L2 L3 JOIN HIGH WYE U1 V1 W1 U2&V2&W2 LOW DELTA U1, W2 V1, U2 W1, V2 *Voltage Ratio: 1.732 to 1. DUAL VOLTAGE WYE-CONNECTED START DELTA-CONNECTED RUN VOLT CONN. L1 L2 L3 JOIN HIGH WYE U1 V1 W1 U2&U5, V2&V5, W2&W5, U6&V6&W6 DELTA U1, W6 V1, U6 W1, V6 U2&U5, V2&V5, W2&W5 WYE U1, U5 V1, V5 W1, W5 U2&V2&W2, U6&V6&W6 DELTA U1, U5, W2, W6 V1, V5, U2, U6 W1, W5, V2, V6 --- LOW TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS THREE-PHASE MOTORS-TWO SPEED SINGLE WINDING NEMA NOMENCLATURE—6 LEADS CONSTANT TORQUE CONNECTION Low-speed horsepower is half of high-speed horsepower.* SPEED L1 L2 L3 TYPICAL CONNECTION HIGH 6 4 5 1&2&3 JOIN 2 WYE LOW 1 2 3 4-5-6 OPEN 1 DELTA VARIABLE TORQUE CONNECTION Low-speed horsepower is one-fourth of high-speed horsepower.* SPEED L1 L2 L3 TYPICAL CONNECTION HIGH 6 4 5 1&2&3 JOIN 2 WYE LOW 1 2 3 4-5-6 OPEN 1 WYE CONSTANT HORSEPOWER CONNECTION Horsepower is the same at both speeds. SPEED L1 L2 L3 TYPICAL CONNECTION HIGH 6 4 5 1-2-3 OPEN 2 DELTA LOW 1 2 3 4&5&6 JOIN 1 WYE *CAUTION: On European motors horsepower variance with speed may not be the same as shown above. TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS THREE-PHASE MOTORS-TWO SPEED, SINGLE WINDING IEC NOMENCLATURE—6 LEADS CONSTANT TORQUE CONNECTION SPEED L1 L2 L3 TYPICAL CONN. HIGH 2W 2U 2V 1U&1V&1W JOIN 2 WYE LOW 1U 1V 1W 2U-2V-2W OPEN 1 DELTA VARIABLE TORQUE CONNECTION SPEED L1 L2 L3 TYPICAL CONN. HIGH 2W 2U 2V 1U&1V&1W JOIN 2 WYE LOW 1U 1V 1W 2U-2V-2W OPEN 1 WYE TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS FOR NEMA DC MOTORS All connections are for counterclockwise rotation facing the end opposite the drive. For clockwise rotation, interchange A1 and A2. Some manufacturers connect the interpole winding on the A2 side of the armature. When the shunt field is separately excited, the same polarities must be observed for a given rotation. TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS FOR NEMA DC GENERATORS All connections are for counterclockwise rotation facing the end opposite the drive. For clockwise rotation, interchange A1 and A2. Some manufacturers connect the interpole winding on the A2 side of the armature. For the above generators, the shunt field may be either self-excited or separately excited. When it is self-excited, connections should be made as shown. When the shunt field is separately excited, the same polarities must be observed for a given rotation. FIELD POLARITIES OF DC MACHINES The diagram above shows the polarity of interpoles with respect to the polarity of the main poles. For a motor, the polarity of the interpole is the same as that of the main pole preceding it in the direction of rotation. For a generator, the polarity of the interpole is the same as that of the main pole following it in the direction of rotation. MAXIMUM LOCKED-ROTOR CURRENTS THREE-PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE MOTORS NEMA DESIGNS B, C & D LOCKED-ROTOR CURRENT IN AMPERES HP RATED VOLTAGE 200V 230V 460V 575V 2300V 4000V .5 .75 1 23 29 34 20 25 30 10 12 15 8 10 12 1.5 2 3 46 57 74 40 50 64 20 25 32 16 20 26 5 7.5 10 106 146 186 92 127 162 46 63 81 37 51 65 15 20 25 267 333 420 232 290 365 116 145 182 93 116 146 30 40 50 500 667 834 435 580 725 217 290 362 174 232 290 60 75 100 1000 1250 1665 870 1085 1450 435 542 725 348 434 580 87 108 145 50 62 83 125 150 200 2085 2500 3335 1815 2170 2900 907 1085 1450 726 868 1160 181 217 290 104 125 167 250 300 350 4200 5060 5860 3650 4400 5100 1825 2200 2550 1460 1760 2040 365 440 510 210 253 293 400 450 500 6670 7470 8340 5800 6500 7250 2900 3250 3625 2320 2600 2900 580 650 725 333 374 417 The locked-rotor current of Design B, C and D constant-speed induction motors, when measured with rated voltage and frequency impressed and with rotor locked, shall not exceed the above values. Reference: NEMA Standards MG 1-12.35. MAXIMUM LOCKED-R0TOR CURRENTS THREE-PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE MOTORS NEMA DESIGN E LOCKED-ROTOR CURRENT IN AMPERES HP RATED VOLTAGE 200V 230V 460V 575V .5 .75 1 23 29 35 20 25 30 10 13 15 8 10 12 2300V 4000V 1.5 2 3 46 58 84 40 50 73 20 25 37 16 20 29 5 7.5 10 1140 210 259 122 183 225 61 92 113 49 73 90 15 20 25 388 516 646 337 449 562 169 225 281 135 180 225 30 40 50 775 948 1185 674 824 1030 337 412 515 270 330 412 60 75 100 1421 1777 2154 1236 1545 1873 618 773 937 494 618 749 124 155 187 71 89 108 125 150 200 2692 3230 4307 2341 2809 3745 1171 1405 1873 936 1124 1498 234 281 375 135 162 215 250 300 350 5391 6461 7537 4688 5618 6554 2344 2809 3277 1875 2247 2622 469 562 655 270 323 377 400 450 500 8614 9691 10767 7490 8427 9363 3745 4214 4682 2996 3371 3745 749 843 936 431 485 538 The locked-rotor current of Design E constant-speed induction motors, when measured with rated voltage and frequency impressed and with rotor locked, shall not exceed the above values. Reference: NEMA Standards MG 1-12.35A. NEMA CODE LETTERS FOR AC MOTORS NEMA CODE LETTERS FOR LOCKED-ROTOR KVA The letter designations for locked-rotor kVA per horsepower as measured at full voltage and rated frequency are as follows. LETTER DESIGNATION KVA PER HORSEPOWER* LETTER DESIGNATION KVA PER HORSEPOWER* A B C 0.0– 3.15 3.15 – 3.55 3.55 – 4.0 K L M 8.0 – 9.0 9.0 – 10.0 10.0 – 11.2 D E F G 4.0 – 4.5 4.5 – 5.0 5.0 – 5.6 5.6 – 6.3 N P R S 11.2 – 12.5 12.5 – 14.0 14.0 – 16.0 16.0 – 18.0 H J 6.3 – 7.1 7.1 – 8.0 T U V 18.0 – 20.0 20.0 – 22.4 22.4 - & up *Locked kVA per horsepower range includes the lower figure up to, but not including, the higher figure. For example, 3.14 is designated by letter A and 3.15 by letter B. Reference: NEMA Standards MG 1 – 10.37.2. CODE LETTERS USUALLY APPLIED TO RATINGS OF MOTORS NORMALLY STARTED ON FULL VOLTAGE CODE LETTERS Horsepower F G H J K 3-phase 15 up 10 – 7½ 1-phase --- 5 5 3 2 – 1½ 1 3 2 – 1½ 1-¾ ½ STARTING KVA PER HORSEPOWER FOR SINGLE-PHASE MOTORS Starting kVA per hp = Volts x Locked-Rotor Amps 1000 X hp 1 for 1 Ø 1.732 for 3 Ø L GENERAL SPEED-TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS NEMA DESIGN B LOCKED ROTOR TORQUE BREAKDOWN TORQUE 70 – 275%* 175-300%* LOCKED ROTOR CURRENT 600 – 700% RELATIVE EFFICIENCY %SLIP 0.5 – 5% Medium or High Applications: Fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps and compressors, motor-generator sets, etc., where starting torque requirements are relatively low. C 200 – 250%* 190 – 225%* 600 – 700% 1 – 5% Medium Applications: Conveyors, crushers, stirring machines, agitators, reciprocating pumps and compressors, etc., where starting under load is required. D 275% 275% 600 – 700% Applications: High peak loads with or without 5 – 8% 8 – 13% 15 – 25% Medium flywheels, such as punch presses, shears, elevators, extractors, winches, hoists, oil-well pumping, and wire-drawing machines. E 75 – 190%* 160 – 200%* 800 – 1000% 0.5 – 3% High Applications: Fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps and compressors, motor-generator sets, etc., where starting torque requirements are relatively low. Based on NEMA Standards MG 10, Table 2-1. NEMA Design A is a variation of Design B having higher locked-rotor current. *Higher values are for motors having lower horsepower ratings. EFFECT OF VOLTAGE UNBALANCE ON MOTOR PERFORMANCE When the line voltages applies to a polyphase induction motor are not equal, unbalanced currents in the stator windings will result. A small percentage voltage unbalance will result in a much larger percentage current unbalance. Consequently, the temperature rise of the motor operating at a particular load and percentage voltage unbalance will be greater than for the motor operating under the same conditions with balanced voltages. Should voltages be unbalanced, the rated horsepower of the motor should be multiplied by the factor shown in the graph below to reduce the possibility of damage to the motor. Operation of the motor at above a 5 percent voltage unbalance condition is not recommended. Alternating current, polyphase motors normally are designed to operate successfully under running conditions at rated load when the voltage unbalance at the motor terminals does not exceed 1 percent. Performance will not necessarily be the same as when the motor is operating with a balanced voltage at the motor terminals. MEDIUM MOTOR DERATING FACTOR DUE TO UNBALANCED VOLTAGE PERCENTAGE VOLTAGE UNBALANCE Figure 2 Percent Voltage Unbalance = 100 x Max. Volt. Deviation from Avg. Volt. Average Volt. Example: With voltages of 460, 467, and 450, the average is 459, the Maximum deviation from the average is 9, and the Percent Unbalance = 100 x 9 459 = 1.96 percent Reference: NEMA Standards MG 1 – 14.35. STARTING CHARACTERISTICS OF SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTORS STARTING METHOD Full-Voltage Value VOLTAGE AT MOTOR LINE CURRENT MOTOR TORQUE 100 100 100 80 65 50 64* 42* 25* 64 42 25 80 80 64 80% tap 65% tap 50% tap 80 65 50 80 65 50 64 42 25 Series-Parallel 100 25 25 Wye-Delta 100 33 33 100 100 70 50 50 50 Autotransformer 80% tap 65% tap 50% tap Primary Resistor Typical Rating Primary Reactor Part-Winding (½ - ½) 2 to 12 Poles 14 and more Poles Soft start is also available using solid-state controls. Consult manufacturer for voltage, current and torque rating. *Autotransformer magnetizing current not included. Magnetizing current is usually less than 25 percent of motor full-load current. ALLOWABLE STARTS AND STARTING INTERVALS DESIGN A AND B MOTORS 2 POLE A HP B 4 POLE C A B 6 POLE C A B C 1 1.5 2 3 15 12.9 11.5 9.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.5 75 76 77 80 30 25.7 23 19.8 5.8 8.6 11 17 38 38 39 40 34 29.1 26.1 22.4 15 23 30 44 33 34 35 36 5 7.5 10 15 8.1 7.0 6.2 5.4 5.7 8.3 11 16 83 88 92 100 16.3 13.9 12.5 10.7 27 39 51 75 42 44 46 50 18.4 15.8 14.2 12.1 71 104 137 200 37 39 41 44 20 25 30 40 4.8 4.4 4.1 3.7 21 26 31 40 110 115 120 130 9.6 8.8 8.2 7.4 99 122 144 189 55 58 60 65 10.9 10.0 9.3 8.4 262 324 384 503 48 51 53 57 50 60 75 100 3.4 3.2 2.9 2.6 49 58 71 92 145 170 180 220 6.8 6.3 5.8 5.2 232 275 338 441 72 85 90 110 7.7 7.2 6.6 5.9 620 735 904 1181 64 75 79 97 125 150 200 250 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 113 133 172 210 275 320 600 1000 4.8 4.5 4.0 3.7 542 640 831 1017 140 160 300 500 5.4 5.1 4.5 4.2 1452 1719 2238 2744 120 140 265 440 Where: A = Maximum number of starts per hour. B = Maximum product of starts per hour times load Wk2. C = Minimum rest or off time in seconds between starts. Allowable starts per hour is the lesser of (1) A or (2) B divided by the load Wk2, i.e., Starts per hour < A or Example: B Load Wk2 , whichever is less. 25 hp, 4 pole, load Wk2 = 50 From Table, A = 8.8, B = 122. Starts per hour = 122 = 2.44 50 Calculated value is less than A. Therefore allowable starts/hour = 2.44. Note: Table is based on following conditions: 1. Applied voltage and frequency in accordance with NEMA Standards MG 1-12.44. 2. During the accelerating period, the connected load torque is equal to or less than 3. a torque which varies as the square of the speed and is equal to 100 percent of rated torque at rated speed. External load Wk2 equal to or less than the values listed in Column B. For other conditions, consult the manufacturer. Reference: NEMA Standards MG 10, Table 2-3. NEMA SIZE STARTERS FORTHREE-PHASE MOTORS MAXIMUM HORSEPOWER—POLYPHASE MOTORS FULL-VOLTAGE NEMA STARTING SIZE 200V 230V 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1½ 3 7½ 10 25 40 75 150 ---- 1½ 3 7½ 15 30 50 100 200 300 450 800 AUTOTRANSFORMER STARTING PART-WINDING STARTING WYE-DELTA STARTING 460V 575V 200V 230V 460V 575V 200V 230V 460V 575V 200V 230V 460V 575V 2 5 10 25 50 100 200 400 600 900 1600 --7½ 10 25 40 75 150 ---- --7½ 15 30 50 100 200 300 450 800 --10 25 50 100 200 400 600 900 1600 --10 20 40 75 150 ----- --10 25 50 75 150 300 450 700 1300 --15 40 75 150 350 600 900 1400 2600 --10 20 40 60 150 300 500 750 1500 --10 25 50 75 150 350 500 800 1500 --15 40 75 150 300 700 1000 1500 3000 STARTER ENCLOSURES TYPE NEMA ENCLOSURE 1 2 3 3R 3S 4 4X 5 6 6P 12 12K 13 General Purpose – Indoor Driproof—Indoor Dusttight, Raintight, Sleettight –Outdoor Raintight, Sleet Resistant—Outdoor Dusttight, Raintight, Sleettight—Outdoor Watertight, Dusttight, Sleet Resistant-Indoor & Outdoor Watertight, Dusttight, Corrosion-Resistant—Indoor & Outdoor Dusttight, Drip-Proof--Indoor Occasionally Submersible, Watertight, Sleet Resistant—Indoor & Outdoor Watertight, Sleet Resistant—Prolonged Submersion—Indoor & Outdoor Dusttight and Driptight—Indoor Dusttight and Driptight, with Knockouts—Indoor Oiltight and Dusttight—Indoor HAZARDOUS LOCATION STARTERS Class I, Group A, B, C or D Hazardous Locations—Indoor Class I, Group A, B, C or D Hazardous Location—Indoor & Outdoor Class II, Group E, F or G Hazardous Locations—Indoor Requirements of Mine Safety and Health Administration 7 8 9 10 CONVERSION OF NEMA TYPE NUMBERS TO IEC CLASSIFICATION DESIGNATIONS (Cannot be used to convert IEC Classification Designations to NEMA Type Numbers) NEMA ENCLOSURE TYPE NUMBER 1 2 3 3R 3S 4 and 4X 5 6 and 6P 12 and 12K 13 IEC ENCLOSURE CLASSIFICATION DESIGNATION IP10 IP11 IP54 IP14 IP54 IP56 IP52 IP67 IP52 IP54 Note: This comparison is based on tests specified in IEC Publication 529. Reference: Information in the above tables is based on NEMA Standard 250-1991. NEMA SIZE STARTERS FOR SINGLE-PHASE MOTORS SIZE OF CONTROLLER 00 0 1 1P 2 3 CONTINUOUS CURRENT RATING (AMPERES) HORSEPOWER AT 115V AT 230V 9 18 27 36 45 90 1/3 1 2 3 3 7½ 1 2 3 5 7½ 15 Reference: NEMA ICS2-1993, Table 2-4-2. DERATING FACTORS FOR CONDUCTORS IN A CONDUIT NUMBER OF CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS 4-6 7-9 10-20 21-30 31-40 41 & Above PERCENT OF VALUES IN TABLES AS ADJUSTED FOR TEMPERATURE IF NECESSARY 80 70 50 45 40 35 Reprinted with permission from NFPA 70-1996, National Electrical Code,® copyright © 1996, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Massachusetts 02269. TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION OF INSULATION SYSTEMS TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION INSULATION SYSTEMS* Class A Class E** Class B Class F Class H Class N Class 105 Class 120 Class 130 Class 155 Class 180 Class 200 105°C 120°C 130°C 155°C 180°C 200°C 221°F 248°F 266°F 311°F 356°F 392°F *IEEE Std. 117. **Used in European equipment. Insulation systems are arranged in order of their insulation level and classified by a letter symbol or by a numerical value. The numerical value relates to the temperature classification of the insulation system. The temperature classification indicates the maximum (hot-spot) temperature at which the insulation system can be operated for normal expected service life. In general, all materials used in a given insulation system should be rated for temperatures equal to, or exceeding, the temperature classification of the system. RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS (RTDs) METAL CHARACTERISTIC TRC (W/W/°C)* COPPER 10.0W @ 25°C .00427 PLATINUM 100W @ 0°C .00385 NICKEL 120W @ 0°C .00672 *TCR is the Temperature Coefficient of Resistance. THERMOCOUPLE JUNCTION TYPES JUNCTION TYPE THERMOCOUPLE MATERIALS E CHROMEL-CONSTANTAN J IRON-CONSTANTAN K CHROMEL-ALUMEL T COPPER-CONSTANTAN DETERMINING THE POLARIZATION INDEX OF MACHINE WINDINGS Knowing the polarization Index of a motor or generator can be useful in appraising the fitness of the machine for service. The index is calculated from measurements of the winding insulation resistance. Before measuring the insulation resistance, remove all external connections to the machine and completely discharge the windings to the grounded machine frame. Proceed by applying either 500 or 1000 volts dc between the winding and ground using a direct-indicating, power-driven megohmmeter. For machines rated 500 volts and over, the higher value is used. The voltage is applied for 10 minutes and kept constant for the duration of the test. The polarization index is calculated as the ratio of the 10-minute to the 1-minute value of the insulation resistance, measured consecutively. Polarization Index = Resistance after 10 minutes Resistance after 1 minute The recommended minimum value of polarization index for ac and dc motors and generators is 2.0. Machines having windings with a lower index are less likely to be suited for operation. The polarization index is useful in evaluating windings for: • Buildup of dirt or moisture. • Gradual deterioration of the insulation (by comparing results of tests made earlier on the same machine). • Fitness for overpotential tests. • Suitability for operation. The procedure for determining the polarization index is covered in detail by IEEE Standard No. 43. CAUTION: Before proceeding with this test, the winding must be discharged against the frame. USEFUL FORMULAS FORMULAS FOR ELECTRICAL MOTORS TO FIND DIRECT CURRENT SINGLE PHASE THREE PHASE HORSEPOWER E x I x EFF 746 E x I x EFF x PF 746 1.732 x E x I x EFF x PF 746 CURRENT 746 x HP E x EFF 746 x HP E x EFF x PF 746 x HP 1.732 x E x EFF x PF EFFICIENCY 746 x HP ExI 746 x HP E x I x PF 746 x HP 1.732 x E x I x PF ------ Input Watts ExI Input Watts 1.732 x E x I POWER FACTOR E = Volts EFF = Efficiency (decimal) HP = Horsepower I = Amperes PF = Power factor (decimal) FORMULAS FOR ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS TO FIND DIRECT CURRENT Watts Volts AMPERES VOLTAMPERES _____ WATTS Volts x Amperes SINGLE PHASE THREE PHASE Watts Volts x Power Factor Volts x Amperes Watts 1.732 x Volts x Power Factor 1.732 x Volts x Amperes Volts x Amperes x Power Factor 1.732 x Volts x Amperes x Power Factor OHMS LAW CAPACITANCE IN MICROFARADS AT 60 HZ Ohms = Volts/Amperes (R = E/I) Amperes = Volts/Ohms (I = E/R) Volts = Amperes x Ohms (E = IR) Capacitance Capacitance = 26500 x Amperes Volts = 2.65 x kVAR (Volts)2 USEFUL FORMULAS ======================================================================== TEMPERATURE CORRECTION OF WINDING RESISTANCE RC = Resistance at temperature TC (Ohms) RC = RH x (K + TC) VALUE OF K (K + TH ) RH = RC x (K + TH) (K + TC) RH – Resistance at temperature Material K Aluminum 225 Copper 234.5 TH (Ohms) TC = Temperature of cold winding (°C) TH = Temperature of hot winding (°C) MOTOR APPLICATION FORMULAS OUTPUT Horsepower = Torque (lb. ft) x RPM 5250 Kilowatts = Torque (N•m) x RPM 9550 Torque (lb.ft) = Horsepower x 5250 RPM Torque (N•m) = Kilowatts x 9550 RPM SPEED – AC MACHINERY Synchronous RPM = 120 x Frequency (Hz) Number of Poles Percent slip = Synchronous RPM = Full-load RPM Synchronous RPM x 100 TIME FOR MOTOR TO REACH OPERATING SPEED (IN SECONDS) Seconds = Wk2 (lb.ft. 2) x Speed Change (RPM) 308 x Avg. Accelerating Torque (lb.ft.) WK2 = Inertia of rotor + Average accelerating torque = Inertia of Load x Load RPM2 Motor RPM2 [(FLT + BDT)/2] + BDT + LRT 3 Where: BDT = Breakdown torque FLT = Full-load torque LRT = Locked-rotor torque USEFUL FORMULAS MOTOR APPLICATION FORMULAS—CONTINUED SHAFT STRESS Shaft stress (psi) = HP x 321.000 RPM x D3 Shaft stress (kg/mm2) = Where: D = Shaft diameter (in or mm) HP = Motor output KW = Motor output psi = Pounds per square inch RPM = Revolutions per minute CENTRIFUGAL APPLICATIONS AFFINITY LAWS Flow1 = Flow2 Pres1 HP2 RPM1 HP = CFM x PSF 33000 x Efficiency of Fan (RPM1 )2 HP = CFM x PIW 6343 x Efficiency of Fan HP = CFM x PSI 229 x Efficiency of Fan (RPM 2) 2 Pres2 HP1 FANS AND BLOWERS RPM2 = = (RPM1 )3 (RPM 2 Where: Pres = Pressure RPM = Revolutions per minute KW x 4.96 x 106 RPM x D3 )3 Where: CFM = Cubic feet per minute PIW = Inches of water gauge PSF = Pound per square foot PSI = Pounds per square inch PUMPS HP = HP = GPM x FT x Specific Gravity VOLUME OF LIQUID IN A TANK 3960 x Efficiency of Pump GPM x PSI x Specific Gravity Gallons = 5.875 x D2 x H 1713 x Efficiency of Pump Where: FT = Head in feet* GPM = Gallons per minute PSI = Pounds per square inch *Head in feet = 2.31 x pounds per square inch gravity. 1 gallon (US) of water weighs 8.35 lb. Specific gravity of water = 1.0 Where: D = Tank diameter (ft) H = Height of liquid (ft) GLOSSARY ALTERNATOR AMBIENT TEMPERATURE BASE LINE BREAKDOWN TORQUE CODE LETTER CONSTANT HORSEPOWER MOTOR CONSTANT TORQUE MOTOR DELTA CONNECTION DESIGN DUTY EFFICIENCY FOOT-POUND FREQUENCY FULL-LOAD CURRENT FULL-LOAD SPEED FULL-LOAD TORQUE HARMONIC HERTZ (HZ) HORSEPOWER IEC IEEE INSULATION INSULATION CLASS KILOWATT LOCKED-ROTOR CURRENT LOCKED-ROTOR TORQUE MEGOHMMETER MOTOR A synchronous machine used to convert mechanical power into alternating current electric power. The temperature of the surrounding cooling medium. Commonly known as room temperature when the air is the cooling medium in contact with the equipment. A vibration reading taken when a machine is in good operating condition that is used as a reference for monitoring and analysis. The maximum torque that an ac motor will develop with rated voltage applied at rated frequency without an abrupt drop in speed. Also termed pull-out torque or maximum torque. A letter which appears on the nameplates of ac motors to show their locked-rotor kilovolt-amperes per horsepower at rated voltage and frequency. A term used to describe a multispeed motor in which the rated horsepower is the same for all operating speeds. When applied to a solid state drive unit, it refers to the ability to deliver constant horsepower over a predetermined speed range. A multispeed motor for which the rated horsepower varies in direct ratio to the synchronous speeds. The output torque is essentially the same at all speeds. A three-phase winding connection in which the phases are connected in series to form a closed circuit. NEMA design letters A, B, C, D, and E define certain starting and running characteristics of polyphase squirrel cage induction motors. These characteristics include locked-rotor torque, locked-rotor current, pull-up torque, breakdown torque, slip at rated load, and the ability to withstand full-voltage starting. A continuous or short-time rating of a machine. Continuous-duty machines reach an equilibrium temperature within the temperature limits of the insulation system. Machines which do not, or can not, reach an equilibrium temperature have a shorttime or intermittent-duty rating. Short-time ratings are usually one hour or less for motors. The ratio between useful work performed and the energy expended in producing it. It is the ratio of output power divided by the input power. The amount of work, in the English system, required to raise a one pound weight a distance of one foot. The number of cycles in a time period (usually one second). Alternating current frequency is expressed in cycles per second, termed Hertz (Hz). The current required for any electrical machine to produce its rated output or perform its rated function. The speed at which any rotating machine produces its rated output. The torque required to produce rated power at full-load speed. A multiple of the fundamental electrical frequency. Harmonics are present whenever the electrical power waveforms (voltage and current) are not pure sine waves. The preferred terminology for cycles per second (frequency). A unit for measuring the power of motors or the rate of doing work. One horsepower equals 33,000 foot-pounds of work per minute (550 ft. lbs. per second) or 746 watts. International Electrotechnical Commission. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Non-conducting materials separating the current-carrying parts of an electric machine from each other or from adjacent conducting material at a different potential. A letter or number that designates the temperature rating of an insulation material or system with respect to thermal endurance. A unit of electrical power. Also, the output rating of motors manufactured and used off the North American continent. Steady-state current taken from the line with the rotor of a motor at standstill and at rated voltage and frequency. The minimum torque that a motor will develop at standstill for all angular positions of the rotor, with rated voltage applied at rated frequency. An instrument for measuring insulation resistance. A rotating machine that converts electrical power (either alternating current or direct current) into mechanical power. NEC NEMA NEWTON-METER PART-WINDING STARTING POLES POUND-FOOT POWER FACTOR RATED TEMPERATURE RISE RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR (RTD) ROTOR SERVICE FACTOR SLIP STARTING TORQUE STATOR SYNCHRONOUS SPEED THERMISTOR TORQUE TRENDING VARIABLE-TORQUE MOTOR WYE CONNECTION WYE-DELTA STARTING National Electrical Code. National Electrical Manufacturers Association. Unit of torque, in the metric system, that is a force of one newton, applied at a radius of one meter and in a direction perpendicular to the radius arm. A part-winding start polyphase motor is one arranged for starting by first energizing part of its primary winding and, subsequently, energizing the remainder of the primary winding. The leads are normally numbered 1, 2, 3 (starting) and 7, 8, 9 (remaining). The magnetic poles set up inside an electric machine by the placement and connection of the windings. Unit of torque, in the English system, that is a force of one pound, applied at a radius of one foot, and in a direction perpendicular to the radius arm. The ratio of watts to volt-amperes of an ac electric circuit. The permissible rise in temperature above ambient for an electric machine operating under load. A device used for temperature sensing consisting of a wire coil or deposited film of pure metal for which the change in resistance is a known function of temperature. The most common type is nickel, with other types being copper, platinum, and nickel-iron. The rotating element of any motor or generator. A multiplier which, when applied to rated power, indicates a permissible power loading that may be carried under the conditions specified for the service factor. The difference between synchronous and operating speeds, compared to synchronous speed, expressed as a percentage. Also the difference between synchronous and operating speeds, expressed in rpm. The torque produced by a motor at rest when power is applied. For an ac machine, this is the locked-rotor torque. The stationary part of a rotating electric machine. Commonly used to describe the stationary part of an ac machine that contains the power windings. The speed of the rotating machine element of an ac motor that matches the speed of the rotating magnetic field created by the armature winding. Synchronous speed = (Frequency x 120) (Number of Poles) A resistive device used for temperature sensing that is composed of metal oxides formed into a bead and encapsulated in epoxy or glass. A typical thermistor has a positive temperature coefficient; that is, resistance increases dramatically and nonlinearly with temperature. Though less common, there are negative temperature coefficient thermistors. The rotating force produced by a motor. The units of torque may be expressed as pound-foot, pound-inch (English system), or newton-meter (metric system). Analysis of the change in measured data over at least three data measurement intervals. A multispeed motor in which the rated horsepower varies as the square of the synchronous speeds. A three-phase winding connection formed by joining one end of each phase to make a "Y" point. The other ends of each phase are connected to the line. Also termed a star connection. Wye-delta is a connection which is used to reduce the inrush current and torque of a polyphase motor. A wye (star) start, delta run motor is one arranged for starting by connecting to the line with the winding initially connected wye (star). The winding is then reconnected to run in delta after a predetermined time. The lead numbers for a single run voltage are normally 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.